Why did the most abundant bird in the world go extinct in just 50 years?
You can download the file [ HERE ].
It is important to read the vocabulary before you watch the video. This will improve your ability to understand the video. It will also help you understand how the new vocabulary is used naturally.
The first time you watch the video, just try to understand the overall situation.
First try to answer all the questions from memory. Then rewatch the video and try to answer the questions that you missed.
Watch the video again while you read the script. Reading and listening at the same time will help you hear each individual word and improve your listening accuracy.
There are several different activities that focus on test preparation, vocabulary, grammar, and sentence structure.
Es importante leer el vocabulario antes de ver el video. Esto mejorará su capacidad para comprender el video. También le ayudará a comprender cómo se usa el nuevo vocabulario de forma natural.
La primera vez que vea el video, intente comprender la situación general.
Primero intente responder todas las preguntas de memoria. Luego, vuelva a ver el video e intente responder las preguntas que se perdió.
Mire el video nuevamente mientras lee el guión. Leer y escuchar al mismo tiempo lo ayudará a escuchar cada palabra individual y mejorará su precisión auditiva.
Hay una serie de actividades diferentes que se centran en la preparación de la examen, el vocabulario, la gramática y la estructura de las oraciones.
비디오를 보기 전에 어휘와 배경을 읽는 것이 중요합니다. 이렇게 하면 비디오를 이해하는 능력이 향상됩니다. 또한 새로운 어휘가 어떻게 자연스럽게 사용되는지 이해하는데 도움이됩니다.
비디오를 처음 볼 때 전체 상황을 이해하려고 노력하세요.
먼저 모든 질문에 답을 해보세요. 그런 다음 비디오를 다시보고 놓친 질문에 답해보세요.
대본을 읽는 동안 비디오를 다시 보세요. 읽기와 듣기를 동시에 하면 각각의 단어를 듣고, 듣기 정확도를 향상시킬 수 있습니다.
듣기 정확도, 발음, 어휘, 문법 및 문장 구조에 초점을 맞춘 다양한 액티비티가 있습니다.
É importante ler o vocabulário antes de assistir ao vídeo. Isso melhorará sua capacidade de entender o vídeo. Também ajudará você a entender como o novo vocabulário é usado naturalmente.
Na primeira vez que assistir ao vídeo, tente entender a situação geral.
Primeiro, tente responder a todas as perguntas de memória. Em seguida, assista novamente ao vídeo e tente responder às perguntas que você errou.
Assista ao vídeo novamente enquanto lê o roteiro. Ler e ouvir ao mesmo tempo ajudará você a ouvir cada palavra individualmente e a melhorar sua precisão auditiva.
Existem várias atividades diferentes que se concentram na preparação para o teste, vocabulário, gramática e estrutura de frases.
[n] - noun, [v] - verb, [phv] - phrasal verb, [adj] - adjective, [exp] - expression
This activity is designed to improve sentence accuracy and complexity. Most students can produce the key content words in a sentence. However, they have difficulty with accuracy because the functional words are difficult or can seem unimportant. This activity will help learners eliminate problems with these functional words by giving them immediate feedback on the mistakes they are making. It will also help students develop their use of more natural, varied and complex sentence structures.
TIP: Say the sentence out loud. Notice the types of mistake you make often. Focus on those types of errors. (singular/plural, subject-verb agreement, article use, prepositions, gerunds and infinitives, noun clauses, adjective clauses, word order, and word forms.)
Esta actividad está diseñada para mejorar la precisión y complejidad de las oraciones. La mayoría de los estudiantes pueden producir las palabras clave del contenido en una oración. Sin embargo, tienen dificultades con la precisión porque las palabras funcionales son difíciles o pueden parecer poco importantes. Esta actividad ayudará a los alumnos a eliminar problemas con estas palabras funcionales al brindarles retroalimentación inmediata sobre los errores que están cometiendo. También ayudará a los estudiantes a desarrollar su uso de estructuras de oraciones más naturales, variadas y complejas.
CONSEJO: Diga la oración en voz alta. Observe los tipos de errores que comete con frecuencia. Concéntrese en ese tipo de errores. (singular / plural, concordancia entre sujeto y verbo, uso del artículo, preposiciones, gerundios e infinitivos, cláusulas sustantivas, cláusulas adjetivas, orden de las palabras y formas de las palabras).
이 액티비티는 문장의 정확성과 복잡성을 개선하기 위해 고안되었습니다. 대부분의 학생들은 문장에서 핵심 내용 단어를 생성 할 수 있습니다. 그러나 기능적 단어가 어렵거나 중요하지 않은 것처럼 보일 수 있기 때문에 정확성에 어려움이 있습니다. 이 액티비티는 학습자가 실수에 대한 즉각적인 피드백을 제공함으로써 이러한 기능적 단어의 문제를 제거하는 데 도움이 됩니다. 또한 학생들이 보다 자연스럽고 다양하며 복잡한 문장 구조를 사용하는 데 도움이 됩니다.
팁 : 문장을 크게 말하세요. 자주 저지르는 실수 유형과, 이러한 유형의 오류에 집중하세요. (단수 / 복수, 주어-동사 일치, 관사 사용, 전치사, 동명사 및 부정사, 명사절, 형용사절, 어순 및 단어 형태)
Esta atividade foi desenvolvida para melhorar a precisão e a complexidade das frases. A maioria dos alunos pode produzir as palavras-chave do conteúdo em uma frase. No entanto, eles têm dificuldade com precisão porque as palavras funcionais são difíceis ou podem parecer sem importância. Esta atividade ajudará os alunos a eliminar problemas com essas palavras funcionais, dando-lhes feedback imediato sobre os erros que estão cometendo. Também ajudará os alunos a desenvolver o uso de estruturas de sentenças mais naturais, variadas e complexas.
DICA: Diga a frase em voz alta. Observe os tipos de erro que você comete com frequência. Concentre-se nesses tipos de erros. (singular/plural, concordância sujeito-verbo, uso de artigos, preposições, gerúndios e infinitivos, cláusulas substantivas, cláusulas adjetivas, ordem das palavras e formas das palavras.)
Directions: Write sentences about the video clip using the words given. You can change the word form or add words, but you cannot change the word order.
Instrucciones: Escriba oraciones sobre el videoclip usando las palabras dadas. Puede cambiar la forma de la palabra o agregar palabras, pero no puede cambiar el orden de las palabras.
Instrucciones: Escreva orações sobre o videoclipe usando as palavras-chave. Você pode alterar a forma da palavra ou adicionar palavras, mas não pode alterar a ordem das palavras.
지시 : 주어진 단어를 사용하여 비디오 클립에 대한 문장을 씁니다. 어형을 변경하거나 단어를 추가할 수 있지만 어순은 변경할 수 없습니다.
19th / Century / there / as / as / five / billion / passenger pigeon / world
In the 19th Century, there were as many as 5 billion passenger pingeons in the world.
scientist / know / hunt / play / part / extinct / passenger pigeon
Scientist [know/knew] (that) hunting played [a/some] part in the extinction of passenger pigeons.
passenger pigeon / sleek / and / aerodynamic / than / regular / pigeon
Passenger pigeons are sleeker and more aerodynamic than regular pigeons.
passenger pigeon / fly / flock / so / big / they / could / dark / sky
Passenger pigeons flew in flocks [that/which] were so big (that) they could darken the sky.
passenger pigeon / find / region / North America / east / Rocky / Mountain
Passenger pigeons [were/could be] found in regions of North America ([that/which] were) east of the Rocky Mountains.
passenger / pigeon / have / sex / dimorphism / mainly / color / feather / chest
Passenger pigeons had sexual dimorphism mainly in the color of the feathers on their chest.
last / passenger / pigeon / die / 1914 / Cincinnati / Zoo / age / 29
The last passenger pigeon died in 1914 in the Cincinnati Zoo at the age (of) 29.
all / attempt / breed / her / male / pigeon / fail
All (of the) attempts to breed her [with/to] male pigeons failed.
main / factor / cause / extinction / passenger pigeon / hunting
The main factor that caused the extinction of passenger pigeons was hunting.
because / passenger pigeon / high / sociable / they / likely / struggle / when / population / start / decline
Because passenger pigeons were highly sociable, they likely struggled when their population started [declining/to decline].
large / population / size / passenger pigeon / protect / predator
The large population size of passenger pigeons protected them from predators.
although / human / primary cause / some / aspect / ecology / may / contribute / extiction
Although humans are the primary cause, some aspects of their ecology may have contributed to their extiction.
In the 19th century, passenger pigeons numbered between 3 billion and 5 billion. It's thought that they were the most abundant bird in North
America, perhaps even the world. When the birds were suddenly driven to extinction in a matter of decades, scientists knew hunting likely played
a part in their demise. But why were such large flocks so vulnerable? Could there be more going on? Dr. Jemma Murray is a postdoctoral researcher
at the University of California Santa Cruz. She and her team went searching through museum specimens for some clues. Dr. Murray welcome to the program.
First of all, tell me about passenger pigeons. What were they like?
They were sort of you know in some respects quite similar to the pigeons you see around, but they were sleeker. They were slightly more aerodynamic. And I think the most remarkable thing was that they flew in these huge flocks. The flocks, they apparently could number millions and even billions of birds. And so when one of these flocks flew overhead, they would be described as darkening the sky, so blocking out the sun. It was a pretty remarkable thing to see.
It's hard to get my head around that, about just how many birds there were. Where were they found?
So they were found across large swathes of North America, so the USA and Canada. The whole regions of East of the Rocky Mountains. They were a nomadic species, and so they'd go around in these huge flocks in search of food and habitat.
What do they eat?
They definitely liked nuts from forests, so acorns and things like that. But I think they would be very happy to eat people's crops as well. So I think they weren't particularly popular.
They're probably quite different from the pigeons today who like to eat garbage and chips and whatever else we throw at them.
Yes exactly yeah.
Was there a difference between the males and females?
Yeah, there was sexual dimorphism, so the males had this sort of very reddish chest, kind of like a robin, whereas the females are slightly sort of lighter and duller colors.
Now there's a story about how the very last passenger pigeon died. Tell me about that.
The last known passenger pigeon anyway was called Martha. She lived in the Cincinnati Zoo. And so she died of old age at the age I think it's estimated 29 years old in 1914. There was a group of passenger pigeons that were sort of raised in captivity, and she was one of them. They realize the population was in trouble, and there were awards out there for people to provide males to breed with her because they really wanted to revitalize the population when they could. Sadly, she did not. She did not breed, and so she was the last living.
We hear of animals going extinct all the time. Why do you think the passenger pigeon gets so much attention?
It's just such a dramatic decline at first. Billions of individuals to go extinct in just a matter of a few decades is pretty unheard of. And so just sort of the size of this population and how quickly it went extinct is pretty shocking.
What were the ideas on why they went extinct before your study?
Well I think everyone realizes that they're definitely the main factor was humans. So we hunted them. There was this commercial level harvest of these birds. They were a really great and easy food source. Their flocks are so dense that if you shut off a rifle up in the air, several pigeons would you know just fall to the ground because they were just so dense. And they were also like caught in huge nets, and so they were transported across the country to feed people. And I don’t think people expected them to just go extinct like that. We are also cutting down forests at the same time as we are hunting this species, so we were destroying their habitat and some of their food sources. So other studies have suggested that, so that’s also potentially an issue.
And other people have suggested that passenger pigeons may have been sort of well adapted to living large population sizes. They were known to be really sociable species. They collaborated in finding food, and they also collaborated in rearing their young. So so maybe these sorts of behaviors, while they are really advantageous when their population was really large and really dense, maybe they they sort of made them struggle more when they were sort of hunting resulted in their population becoming a lot smaller and potentially sort of less dense and more disparate.
Oh I see. They needed safety in numbers.
Maybe yes so yeah likely as well so the large population size would have meant that it would protect you from predators.
In your study then do you think that the demise of the passenger pigeon was entirely human caused or do you think that there could have been some natural affection there as well?
Without us hunting them passenger pigeons we've got no reason to think that they would have gone extinct. But saying that, there's potentially some aspects of their ecology or their natural history which meant they were a little bit more vulnerable than they might have been otherwise and to a really rapid decline.
Dr. Murray, thank you very much for your time.
Thank you very much. It's been very nice talking to you.