Learn English with The Last of Us

#1. The Cordyceps Fungus

Published: 2.22.2023
Level 6   |   Time: 3:30
Accent: American
Source: The Last of Us [S01 E01]

On a talk show in the 1960s, two professors debate what the origin of the next pandemic might be.

triangle Directions 목표 Direcciones Instruções


    It is important to read the vocabulary and background before you watch the video. This will improve your ability to understand the video. It will also help you understand how the new vocabulary is used naturally.

  2. WATCH the VIDEO

    The first time you watch the video, just try to understand the overall situation.


    First, try to answer all the questions from memory. Then rewatch the video and try to answer the questions that you missed.

  4. WATCH and READ the SCRIPT

    Watch the video again while you read the script. Reading and listening at the same time will help you hear each individual word and improve your listening accuracy.


    There are several different activities that focus on listening accuracy, pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, and sentence structure.


    Es importante leer el vocabulario y los antecedentes antes de ver el video. Esto mejorará su capacidad para comprender el video. También le ayudará a comprender cómo se usa el nuevo vocabulario de forma natural.

  2. VER el VIDEO

    La primera vez que vea el video, intente comprender la situación general.


    Primero intente responder todas las preguntas de memoria. Luego, vuelva a ver el video e intente responder las preguntas que se perdió.


    Mire el video nuevamente mientras lee el guión. Leer y escuchar al mismo tiempo lo ayudará a escuchar cada palabra individual y mejorará su precisión auditiva.


    Hay una serie de actividades diferentes que se centran en la precisión auditiva, la pronunciación, el vocabulario, la gramática y la estructura de las oraciones.

  1. 어휘와 배경 읽기

    비디오를 보기 전에 어휘와 배경을 읽는 것이 중요합니다. 이렇게 하면 비디오를 이해하는 능력이 향상됩니다. 또한 새로운 어휘가 어떻게 자연스럽게 사용되는지 이해하는데 도움이됩니다.

  2. 비디오 보기

    비디오를 처음 볼 때 전체 상황을 이해하려고 노력하세요.

  3. 문제에 답하기

    먼저 모든 질문에 답을 해보세요. 그런 다음 비디오를 다시보고 놓친 질문에 답해보세요.

  4. 비디오 보면서 대본 읽기

    대본을 읽는 동안 비디오를 다시 보세요. 읽기와 듣기를 동시에 하면 각각의 단어를 듣고, 듣기 정확도를 향상시킬 수 있습니다.

  5. 액티비티 하기

    듣기 정확도, 발음, 어휘, 문법 및 문장 구조에 초점을 맞춘 다양한 액티비티가 있습니다.


    É importante ler o vocabulário e o histórico antes de assistir ao vídeo. Isso melhorará sua capacidade de entender o vídeo. Também ajudará você a entender como o novo vocabulário é usado naturalmente.


    Na primeira vez que assistir ao vídeo, tente entender a situação geral.


    Primeiro, tente responder todas as perguntas de memória. Em seguida, assista novamente ao vídeo e tente responder às perguntas que você errou.


    Assista ao vídeo novamente enquanto lê o roteiro. Ler e ouvir ao mesmo tempo ajudará você a ouvir cada palavra individualmente e a melhorar sua precisão auditiva.


    Existem várias atividades diferentes que se concentram na precisão auditiva, pronúncia, vocabulário, gramática e estrutura da frase.

triangle Vocabulary 어휘 Vocabulário Vocabulario

  • ☐ ☐ ☐ influenza [n] - a type of sickness, the flu
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ a virus [n] - a tiny agent that causes disease and sickness
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ a matter of weeks [exp] - only a few weeks
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ a global pandemic [n] - an sickness that affects the whole world
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ an epidemiologist [n] - a doctor who investigates the causes of sickness and disease
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ the prospect of... [exp] - the possibility of...
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ microorganisms [n] - very small living things
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ pose a threat [exp] - be a danger
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ the most dire terms [exp] - the worst or most serious situation
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ bacteria [n] - tiny living agents that cause disease and sickness
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ fungus [n] - tiny living agents that can cause sickness (mold, mushrooms) [image] vocab image [image] vocab image
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ LSD [n] - a type of illegal drug
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ psilocybin [n] - a natural psychedelic drug that can be found in or made from fungus
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ alter our very minds [exp] - change our brains
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ infect [v] - make sick
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ an ant [n] - a small insect [image] vocab image
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ the circulatory system [n] - the system in the body that moves blood (heart, veins)
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ floods it with [exp] - adds a lot to
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ a hallucinogen [n] - a drug that makes you imagine unreal things
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ bend it to my will [exp] - control it
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ a puppeteer [n] - a person who controls a puppet [image] vocab image
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ a marionette [n] - a puppet [image] vocab image
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ devour [v] - eat quickly
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ flesh [n] - skin, meat
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ decomposition [n] - the process of becoming rotten or decayed
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ penicillin [n] - a type of medicine that fights infection, an antibiotic
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ in distress [exp] - in trouble, in an emergency
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ 94 degrees [exp] - 35 degrees Celsius
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ evolve [v] - change or mutate over time
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ withstand [v] - bear, resist, remain undamaged
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ mutate [v] - change over time, become different
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ ascomycete, candida, ergot, cordyceps, aspergillus [n] - types of fungi
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ burrow [v] - dig into, make a hole
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ by any means necessary [exp] - in any way possible

[n] - noun,  [v] - verb,  [phv] - phrasal verb,  [adj] - adjective,  [exp] - expression

triangle Background 배경 O fundo Antecedentes

Dr. Neuman
Dr. Neuman
  • The Last of Us is a zombie apocalypse TV show.
  • This episode shows a science talk show in 1968.
  • Two professors (epidemiologists) are debating the possible causes of the next pandemic.

triangle Questions 문제 Questões Preguntas

  1. The "pan" in pandemic means _______.

  2. Dr. Neuman thinks that _______ will be the most likely cause of a pandemic.
    a virus
    a fungus

  3. Dr. Neuman says that humans always _______ when they come into contact with viruses.

  4. LSD comes from a fungus called _______.

  5. There is a fungus that floods an ant's _______ with hallucinogens.

  6. The fungus _______ the ant's mind.

  7. The fungus starts to eat the _______ of the ant.

  8. The fungus in the ant's body _______ decomposition.

  9. Fungus cannot exist if the host's internal temperature is _______ 94 degrees.

  10. Fungus might evolve and become more dangerous if the earth becomes _______.

  11. Dr. Neuman says it is _______ to make a cure for an infectious fungus.

triangle Sentence Building 문장 만들기 Construção de sentença Construcción de oraciones [ ? ]


This activity is designed to improve sentence accuracy and complexity. Most students can produce the key content words in a sentence. However, they have difficulty with accuracy because the functional words are difficult or can seem unimportant. This activity will help learners eliminate problems with these functional words by giving them immediate feedback on the mistakes they are making. It will also help students develop their use of more natural, varied and complex sentence structures.

TIP: Say the sentence out loud. Notice the types of mistake you make often. Focus on those types of errors. (singular/plural, subject-verb agreement, article use, prepositions, gerunds and infinitives, noun clauses, adjective clauses, word order, and word forms.)


Esta actividad está diseñada para mejorar la precisión y complejidad de las oraciones. La mayoría de los estudiantes pueden producir las palabras clave del contenido en una oración. Sin embargo, tienen dificultades con la precisión porque las palabras funcionales son difíciles o pueden parecer poco importantes. Esta actividad ayudará a los alumnos a eliminar problemas con estas palabras funcionales al brindarles retroalimentación inmediata sobre los errores que están cometiendo. También ayudará a los estudiantes a desarrollar su uso de estructuras de oraciones más naturales, variadas y complejas.

CONSEJO: Diga la oración en voz alta. Observe los tipos de errores que comete con frecuencia. Concéntrese en ese tipo de errores. (singular / plural, concordancia entre sujeto y verbo, uso del artículo, preposiciones, gerundios e infinitivos, cláusulas sustantivas, cláusulas adjetivas, orden de las palabras y formas de las palabras).


이 액티비티는 문장의 정확성과 복잡성을 개선하기 위해 고안되었습니다. 대부분의 학생들은 문장에서 핵심 내용 단어를 생성 할 수 있습니다. 그러나 기능적 단어가 어렵거나 중요하지 않은 것처럼 보일 수 있기 때문에 정확성에 어려움이 있습니다. 이 액티비티는 학습자가 실수에 대한 즉각적인 피드백을 제공함으로써 이러한 기능적 단어의 문제를 제거하는 데 도움이 됩니다. 또한 학생들이 보다 자연스럽고 다양하며 복잡한 문장 구조를 사용하는 데 도움이 됩니다.

팁 : 문장을 크게 말하세요. 자주 저지르는 실수 유형과, 이러한 유형의 오류에 집중하세요. (단수 / 복수, 주어-동사 일치, 관사 사용, 전치사, 동명사 및 부정사, 명사절, 형용사절, 어순 및 단어 형태)


Esta atividade foi desenvolvida para melhorar a precisão e a complexidade das frases. A maioria dos alunos pode produzir as palavras-chave do conteúdo em uma frase. No entanto, eles têm dificuldade com precisão porque as palavras funcionais são difíceis ou podem parecer sem importância. Esta atividade ajudará os alunos a eliminar problemas com essas palavras funcionais, dando-lhes feedback imediato sobre os erros que estão cometendo. Também ajudará os alunos a desenvolver o uso de estruturas de sentenças mais naturais, variadas e complexas.

DICA: Diga a frase em voz alta. Observe os tipos de erro que você comete com frequência. Concentre-se nesses tipos de erros. (singular/plural, concordância sujeito-verbo, uso de artigos, preposições, gerúndios e infinitivos, cláusulas substantivas, cláusulas adjetivas, ordem das palavras e formas das palavras.)

Directions: Write sentences about the video clip using the words given. You can change the word form or add words, but you cannot change the word order. Use a present time frame (tense).

Instrucciones: Escriba oraciones sobre el videoclip usando las palabras dadas. Puede cambiar la forma de la palabra o agregar palabras, pero no puede cambiar el orden de las palabras. Usa el tiempo presente.

Instrucciones: Escribe oraciones sobre el videoclip usando las palabras dadas. Puede cambiar la forma de las palabras o agregar palabras, pero no puede cambiar el orden de las palabras. Usa tiempo presente.

지시 : 주어진 단어를 사용하여 비디오 클립에 대한 문장을 씁니다. 어형을 변경하거나 단어를 추가할 수 있지만 어순은 변경할 수 없습니다. 현재 시제를 사용합니다.

Sentence 1

two / epidemiologist / debate / what / could / lead / globe / pandemic

Two epidemiologists are debating what could lead to a global pandemic.

Sentence 2

Dr / Neuman / state / virus / pandemic / not / real / threat / mankind

Dr. Neuman states (that) a viral pandemic is not a real threat to mankind.

Sentence 3

he / much / more / worry / about / pandemic / cause / fungi

He is much more worried about a pandemic caused by fungi.

Sentence 4

this / because / there / some / fungi / that / seek / control / than / kill

This is because there are some fungi that seek to control rather than to kill.

Sentence 5

he / give / example / fungus / that / common / infect / ant

He gives an example of a fungus [that/which] commonly infects ants.

Sentence 6

it / travel / through / ant / circulatory / system / brain

It travels through the ant's circulatory system to its brain.

Sentence 7

fungus / can / control / ant / much / like / puppeteer / control / marionette

The fungus can control [the/an] ant much like a puppeteer controls a marionette.

Sentence 8

fungus / also / devour / ant / flesh / but / keep / it / alive / by / prevent / decompose

The fungus also devours the ant's flesh but keeps it alive by preventing decomposition.
The fungus also devours the ant's flesh but keeps it alive by preventing it from decomposing.

Sentence 9

other / professor / point / these / type / fungi / not / dangerous / human

The other professor points out (that) these types of fungi are not dangerous to humans.

Sentence 10

this / because / these / fungi / cannot / survive / if / host / internal / temperature / over / 94 / degree

This is because these fungi cannot survive if the host's internal temperature is over 94 degrees

Sentence 11

however / Dr / Neuman / suggest / fungi / might / evolve / if / planet / temperature / get / slight / warm

However, Dr. Neuman suggests (that) fungi might evolve if the planet's temperature gets slightly warmer.

triangle Discussion 논의 Questões de discussão Discusión

  1. Dr. Neuman explains that fungi are harmless now (in 1968) but could become dangerous if the earth gets warmer. This is foreshadowing. What does foreshadowing mean? What do you think this scene is foreshadowing?
  2. Dr. Neuman describes how a specific fungus affects ants. Can you describe the process? Try to use these words: circulatory system, hallucinogens, puppeteer, devour, decomposition.
  3. How are viruses, fungi, and bacteria similar? How are they different?
  4. Dr. Neuman believes that viral pandemic is not a real threat to mankind. Do you agree? How does your expereince with Covid-19 shape your opinion?
  5. How are fungi (and molds) helpful or useful? How are they dangerous? (Can you think of any recent stories in the news?)
  6. Dr. Neuman suggests that a fungus apocalypse is possible. Do you think it is possible, or is it just science fiction?

triangle Script 대본 Roteiro Texto

Schoenheiss: But most probably something similar to influenza.

Host: Because of air travel.

Schoenheiss: Through the air. Coughing…

Host: Uh, I'm sorry. I meant people. On planes. Uh, that was something you described in your book.

Schoenheiss: Yes, a new virus in Madagascar, say, could be in Chicago within a matter of weeks. And we end up with a global pandemic. Pan meaning all. The whole world becomes sick all at once.

Host: Hmmm. And Dr. Neuman, you're also an epidemiologist. I presume the prospect of a viral pandemic keeps you up at night as well.

Dr. Neuman: No.

Host: No?

Dr. Neuman: No.

Host: All right, well, that's our show.

Dr. Neuman: No. Mankind has been at war with the virus from the start. Sometimes, millions of people die, as in an actual war. But in the end, we always win.

Host: Uh, but you, Uh, just to be clear, you, you do think microorganisms pose a threat.

Dr. Neuman: Oh, in the most dire terms.

Host: Bacteria.

Dr. Neuman: No.

Host: You like saying no.

Dr. Neuman: Yes.

Host: Not bacteria. Not viruses. So?

Dr. Neuman: Fungus.

Dr. Neuman: Yes, that's the usual response. Fungi seem harmless enough. Many species know otherwise. Because there are some fungi who seek not to kill, but to control.

Dr. Neuman: Let me ask you, where do we get LSD from?

Host: Where do you get it from?

Dr. Neuman: It comes from ergot, a fungus. Psilocybin? Also a fungus. Viruses can make us ill, but fungi can alter our very minds.

Dr. Neuman: There's a fungus that infects insects. It gets inside an ant, for example, travels through its circulatory system to the ant's brain, and then floods it with hallucinogens, thus bending the ant's mind to its will. The fungus starts to direct the ant's behavior, telling it where to go, what to do, like a puppeteer with a marionette.

Dr. Neuman: And it gets worse. The fungus needs food to live, so it begins to devour its host from within, replacing the ant's flesh with its own, but it doesn't let its victim die. No, it keeps its puppet alive by preventing decomposition.

Dr. Neuman: How? Where do we get penicillin from?

Host: Fungus.

Schoenheiss: Oh…

Host: Dr. Schoenheiss, you're in distress.

Schoenheiss: Fungal infection of this kind is real, but not in humans.

Dr. Neuman: True, fungi cannot survive if its host's internal temperature is over 94 degrees. And currently, there are no reasons for fungi to evolve to be able to withstand higher temperatures. But what if that were to change? What if, for instance, the world were to get slightly warmer?

Dr. Neuman: Well, now there is reason to evolve. One gene mutates and an ascomycete, uh, candida, ergot, cordyceps, aspergillus, any one of them could become capable of burrowing into our brains and taking control not of millions of us, but billions of us.

Dr. Neuman: Billions of puppets with poisoned minds permanently fixed on one unifying goal: to spread the infection to every last human alive by any means necessary. And there are no treatments for this. No preventatives, no cures. They don't exist. It's not even possible to make them.

Host: So if that happens?

Dr. Neuman: We lose.

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