TOEFL: Evolutionary anthropologist Anna Machin explains the importance of the love we have for our friends.
You can download the file [ HERE ].
It is important to read the vocabulary before you watch the video. This will improve your ability to understand the video. It will also help you understand how the new vocabulary is used naturally.
The first time you watch the video, just try to understand the overall situation.
First try to answer all the questions from memory. Then rewatch the video and try to answer the questions that you missed.
Watch the video again while you read the script. Reading and listening at the same time will help you hear each individual word and improve your listening accuracy.
There are several different activities that focus on test preparation, vocabulary, grammar, and sentence structure.
Es importante leer el vocabulario antes de ver el video. Esto mejorará su capacidad para comprender el video. También le ayudará a comprender cómo se usa el nuevo vocabulario de forma natural.
La primera vez que vea el video, intente comprender la situación general.
Primero intente responder todas las preguntas de memoria. Luego, vuelva a ver el video e intente responder las preguntas que se perdió.
Mire el video nuevamente mientras lee el guión. Leer y escuchar al mismo tiempo lo ayudará a escuchar cada palabra individual y mejorará su precisión auditiva.
Hay una serie de actividades diferentes que se centran en la preparación de la examen, el vocabulario, la gramática y la estructura de las oraciones.
비디오를 보기 전에 어휘와 배경을 읽는 것이 중요합니다. 이렇게 하면 비디오를 이해하는 능력이 향상됩니다. 또한 새로운 어휘가 어떻게 자연스럽게 사용되는지 이해하는데 도움이됩니다.
비디오를 처음 볼 때 전체 상황을 이해하려고 노력하세요.
먼저 모든 질문에 답을 해보세요. 그런 다음 비디오를 다시보고 놓친 질문에 답해보세요.
대본을 읽는 동안 비디오를 다시 보세요. 읽기와 듣기를 동시에 하면 각각의 단어를 듣고, 듣기 정확도를 향상시킬 수 있습니다.
듣기 정확도, 발음, 어휘, 문법 및 문장 구조에 초점을 맞춘 다양한 액티비티가 있습니다.
[n] - noun, [v] - verb, [phv] - phrasal verb, [adj] - adjective, [exp] - expression
This activity is designed to improve sentence accuracy and complexity. Most students can produce the key content words in a sentence. However, they have difficulty with accuracy because the functional words are difficult or can seem unimportant. This activity will help learners eliminate problems with these functional words by giving them immediate feedback on the mistakes they are making. It will also help students develop their use of more natural, varied and complex sentence structures.
TIP: Say the sentence out loud. Notice the types of mistake you make often. Focus on those types of errors. (singular/plural, subject-verb agreement, article use, prepositions, gerunds and infinitives, noun clauses, adjective clauses, word order, and word forms.)
Esta actividad está diseñada para mejorar la precisión y complejidad de las oraciones. La mayoría de los estudiantes pueden producir las palabras clave del contenido en una oración. Sin embargo, tienen dificultades con la precisión porque las palabras funcionales son difíciles o pueden parecer poco importantes. Esta actividad ayudará a los alumnos a eliminar problemas con estas palabras funcionales al brindarles retroalimentación inmediata sobre los errores que están cometiendo. También ayudará a los estudiantes a desarrollar su uso de estructuras de oraciones más naturales, variadas y complejas.
CONSEJO: Diga la oración en voz alta. Observe los tipos de errores que comete con frecuencia. Concéntrese en ese tipo de errores. (singular / plural, concordancia entre sujeto y verbo, uso del artículo, preposiciones, gerundios e infinitivos, cláusulas sustantivas, cláusulas adjetivas, orden de las palabras y formas de las palabras).
이 액티비티는 문장의 정확성과 복잡성을 개선하기 위해 고안되었습니다. 대부분의 학생들은 문장에서 핵심 내용 단어를 생성 할 수 있습니다. 그러나 기능적 단어가 어렵거나 중요하지 않은 것처럼 보일 수 있기 때문에 정확성에 어려움이 있습니다. 이 액티비티는 학습자가 실수에 대한 즉각적인 피드백을 제공함으로써 이러한 기능적 단어의 문제를 제거하는 데 도움이 됩니다. 또한 학생들이 보다 자연스럽고 다양하며 복잡한 문장 구조를 사용하는 데 도움이 됩니다.
팁 : 문장을 크게 말하세요. 자주 저지르는 실수 유형과, 이러한 유형의 오류에 집중하세요. (단수 / 복수, 주어-동사 일치, 관사 사용, 전치사, 동명사 및 부정사, 명사절, 형용사절, 어순 및 단어 형태)
Directions: Write sentences about the video clip using the words given. You can change the word form or add words, but you cannot change the word order.
Instrucciones: Escriba oraciones sobre el videoclip usando las palabras dadas. Puede cambiar la forma de la palabra o agregar palabras, pero no puede cambiar el orden de las palabras.
지시 : 주어진 단어를 사용하여 비디오 클립에 대한 문장을 씁니다. 어형을 변경하거나 단어를 추가할 수 있지만 어순은 변경할 수 없습니다.
people / tend / place / romantic / and / parent / love / pedestal / but / underestimate / important / friendship
People tend to place romantic and parental love on a pedestal(,) but (they) underestimate the importance of friendship.
people / North / Europe / country / restrain / about / admit / they / love / friend / than / people / Mediterranean / country
People in Northern European countries are more restrained about admitting (that) they love their friends than people in Mediterranean countries.
far / bio-behavior / synchrony / concern / people / love / friend
As far as bio-behavioral synchrony is concerned, people love their friends.
woman / tend / be / emotional / intimate / and / open / with / best / friend / than / lover
Women tend to be more emotionally intimate and open with their best friends than (they are) (with) their lover.
for / man / best / friend / source / relax / and / release
For men, their best friends are a source of relaxation and release.
people / feel / comfortable / be / self / with / friend / than / lover
People feel more comfortable being themselves with their friends than (they do)(with) their lover.
Machin / believe / love / than / just / emotion
Machin believes (that) love is more than just an emotion.
she / describe / love / motivate / meet / need
She describes love as a motivation meeting a need.
she / believe / love / fundamental / need / similar / air / we / breathe / and / food / we / eat
She believes (that) love is a fundamental need, similar to the air (that) we breathe and the food (that) we eat.
Now friendship is another form of love that you spend time exploring in your book. Tell me what science has revealed there.
What's really interesting about friendship, and what I love about friendship, is in a way it's the love we underestimate, I think, a little bit.
You know, we place romantic love on a pedestal. We place parental love on a pedestal. But friendship, we kind of neglect a little bit.
But what all the science is showing is that as far, as our brains are concerned, as far as our bio-behavioral synchrony is concerned, as far as the neurochemicals that are released when you interact with your friends, you love them.
And maybe partly I think here in the West, and particularly in the northern countries, we are quite restrained about saying that we love our friends.
It's so funny. I spoke to quite a lot of British people and said to them, "Do you love your friends?"
And they would go, "Oh I suppose so." And then I would say to them, "Do you love your dog?"
"Oh yeah. You know I love my dog."
And it's just funny we have this slightly odd attitude to it.
Whereas actually, when I spoke to people in the more Mediterranean countries or maybe the South Americas, they are much more passionate about their friends.
But what I love about friends is friends fulfill something that romantic love in particular can't fulfill.
For women, a study we did at Oxford showed that women are more emotionally intimate with their best friends than they are with their lover. They are more likely to be completely open with their best friend and find that their best friend is their greatest emotional support, which I find fascinating.
And when we look at men and they talk about their best friends, their best friends are a source of relaxation and release. They're somewhere where they can truly be themselves.
So we kind of got these two people in a romantic relationship who maybe are still displaying a little bit to each other to keep each other attracted. But when they're with their best friends, they can truly be who they are. And I think that's really interesting.
And certainly what now we're looking particularly more more and more people being single. You know, the rates of single habitation are going up. People are choosing not to to be in relationships. Friends, in a way, are coming forward to replace that romantic partner for those people. Their friends are really their family and their lover.
You compare our need for love to our need for food and air. So why ultimately is it so important to us?
This is the argument that says love is not an emotion. And love is not an emotion love is far too complex to be an emotion. Even people who research emotions are like, "Oh yeah. We can't put it in that box."
It contains emotion. Obviously, it contains passion and affection and anger and fear and all these different emotions. But it contains so many other things.
And really if we look at it, and particularly its role in motivating us and the role that dopamine in particular has in motivating us, it seems to be more a motivation meeting a need than it is in fact an emotion.
And if we look at the needs, the fundamental needs you have in life, they are you know water, food, shelter, safety. And there is a big argument now to add to that, love. Because if you don't have love, whether it's cooperating with your friends or it's love for your partner or your children, you're not going to get very far in life. You're not going to survive. You know, babies need love because otherwise they don't survive, or they are developmentally very damaged.
So we argue now that actually love is a fundamental need that sits at the very basis of that need pyramid. And it sits alongside things like the air we breathe and the water we drink and the food we eat. It's a fundamental life need.
So love it or hate it, you can't live without it.