TOEFL: The first clip about how English became the dominant world language and the (unfair) advantages it gives its speakers.
You can download the file [ HERE ].
It is important to read the vocabulary before you watch the video. This will improve your ability to understand the video. It will also help you understand how the new vocabulary is used naturally.
The first time you watch the video, just try to understand the overall situation.
First try to answer all the questions from memory. Then rewatch the video and try to answer the questions that you missed.
Watch the video again while you read the script. Reading and listening at the same time will help you hear each individual word and improve your listening accuracy.
There are several different activities that focus on test preparation, vocabulary, grammar, and sentence structure.
Es importante leer el vocabulario antes de ver el video. Esto mejorará su capacidad para comprender el video. También le ayudará a comprender cómo se usa el nuevo vocabulario de forma natural.
La primera vez que vea el video, intente comprender la situación general.
Primero intente responder todas las preguntas de memoria. Luego, vuelva a ver el video e intente responder las preguntas que se perdió.
Mire el video nuevamente mientras lee el guión. Leer y escuchar al mismo tiempo lo ayudará a escuchar cada palabra individual y mejorará su precisión auditiva.
Hay una serie de actividades diferentes que se centran en la preparación de la examen, el vocabulario, la gramática y la estructura de las oraciones.
비디오를 보기 전에 어휘와 배경을 읽는 것이 중요합니다. 이렇게 하면 비디오를 이해하는 능력이 향상됩니다. 또한 새로운 어휘가 어떻게 자연스럽게 사용되는지 이해하는데 도움이됩니다.
비디오를 처음 볼 때 전체 상황을 이해하려고 노력하세요.
먼저 모든 질문에 답을 해보세요. 그런 다음 비디오를 다시보고 놓친 질문에 답해보세요.
대본을 읽는 동안 비디오를 다시 보세요. 읽기와 듣기를 동시에 하면 각각의 단어를 듣고, 듣기 정확도를 향상시킬 수 있습니다.
듣기 정확도, 발음, 어휘, 문법 및 문장 구조에 초점을 맞춘 다양한 액티비티가 있습니다.
[n] - noun, [v] - verb, [phv] - phrasal verb, [adj] - adjective, [exp] - expression
This activity is designed to improve sentence accuracy and complexity. Most students can produce the key content words in a sentence. However, they have difficulty with accuracy because the functional words are difficult or can seem unimportant. This activity will help learners eliminate problems with these functional words by giving them immediate feedback on the mistakes they are making. It will also help students develop their use of more natural, varied and complex sentence structures.
TIP: Say the sentence out loud. Notice the types of mistake you make often. Focus on those types of errors. (singular/plural, subject-verb agreement, article use, prepositions, gerunds and infinitives, noun clauses, adjective clauses, word order, and word forms.)
Esta actividad está diseñada para mejorar la precisión y complejidad de las oraciones. La mayoría de los estudiantes pueden producir las palabras clave del contenido en una oración. Sin embargo, tienen dificultades con la precisión porque las palabras funcionales son difíciles o pueden parecer poco importantes. Esta actividad ayudará a los alumnos a eliminar problemas con estas palabras funcionales al brindarles retroalimentación inmediata sobre los errores que están cometiendo. También ayudará a los estudiantes a desarrollar su uso de estructuras de oraciones más naturales, variadas y complejas.
CONSEJO: Diga la oración en voz alta. Observe los tipos de errores que comete con frecuencia. Concéntrese en ese tipo de errores. (singular / plural, concordancia entre sujeto y verbo, uso del artículo, preposiciones, gerundios e infinitivos, cláusulas sustantivas, cláusulas adjetivas, orden de las palabras y formas de las palabras).
이 액티비티는 문장의 정확성과 복잡성을 개선하기 위해 고안되었습니다. 대부분의 학생들은 문장에서 핵심 내용 단어를 생성 할 수 있습니다. 그러나 기능적 단어가 어렵거나 중요하지 않은 것처럼 보일 수 있기 때문에 정확성에 어려움이 있습니다. 이 액티비티는 학습자가 실수에 대한 즉각적인 피드백을 제공함으로써 이러한 기능적 단어의 문제를 제거하는 데 도움이 됩니다. 또한 학생들이 보다 자연스럽고 다양하며 복잡한 문장 구조를 사용하는 데 도움이 됩니다.
팁 : 문장을 크게 말하세요. 자주 저지르는 실수 유형과, 이러한 유형의 오류에 집중하세요. (단수 / 복수, 주어-동사 일치, 관사 사용, 전치사, 동명사 및 부정사, 명사절, 형용사절, 어순 및 단어 형태)
Directions: Write sentences about the video clip using the words given. You can change the word form or add words, but you cannot change the word order.
Instrucciones: Escriba oraciones sobre el videoclip usando las palabras dadas. Puede cambiar la forma de la palabra o agregar palabras, pero no puede cambiar el orden de las palabras.
지시 : 주어진 단어를 사용하여 비디오 클립에 대한 문장을 씁니다. 어형을 변경하거나 단어를 추가할 수 있지만 어순은 변경할 수 없습니다.
there / many / possible / theory / origin / language
There are many possible theories for the origin of language(s).
one / theory / language / start / people / sing
One theory is (that) language started [with/from] people singing.
other / theory / language / allow / mother / keep / children / calm / while / forage
Another theory is (that) language allowed mothers to keep their children calm while (they were) foraging.
unlike / other / primate / human / mother / have / down / children / while / forage / because / they / not / have / hair / baby / hold
Unlike other primates, human mothers had to put down their children while (they were) foraging because they didn't have hair for their babies to hold (on to).
Unlike other primates, human mothers had to put down their children while (they were) foraging because they didn't have hair (that) their babies could hold (on to).
language / likely / start / so / group / human / can / work / together / scavenge / large / dead / animal
Language likely started so (that) groups of humans could work together to scavenge large dead animals.
host / wonder / why / everyone / not / speak / same / language
The host wonders why everyone doesn't speak the same language.
language / inherent / changeable / because / brain / hear / thing / different / time
Language is inherently changeable because brains hear things differently over time.
speak / language / exist / much / long / than / write / language
Spoken language has existed (for) much longer than written language (has (existed)).
if / writing / invent / earlier / there / less / linguist / diversity
If writing had been invented earlier, there would be less linguistic diversity.
of / 7000 / language / current / exist / about / half / them / danger / disappear
Of the 7000 languages that currently exist, about half of them are in danger of disappearing.
20 / large / language / eliminate / many / small / language
The 20 largest languages are eliminating many (of the) small(er) languages.
English / historically / agent / imperial / and / now / drive / power / America
English was historically an agent of imperialism(,) and (it) is now driven by the power of America.
English / eliminate / many / small / language / and / culture / associate / those / language
English is eliminating many (of the) small(er) languages and the cultures ([which/that] are) associated with those languages.
There are many many theories as to why people started using language, and some of them are ones where you
want it to be true because it’s cool. There’s one theory that it started with people singing and that that became language.
There’s another theory that it started — and this is interesting — the idea is that humans are the only primates who aren’t hairy enough for infants to hold on all the time because there isn’t enough hair. So you have to put the infant down while you’re foraging. And so there’s a theory that speech began because human women could coo at their child and keep the child calm, as opposed to, if you’re a chimpanzee where the child can always be up against you.
But I think it probably started with humans needing to group together to scavenge animals dead at a distance that were too big for one human, or even one little group of humans to deal with.
Regardless of why language started and developed as it is, I would think that there would have been a large incentive for everyone to speak the same language. Whether it’s utilitarian, or gossip, or singing, or cooing to one’s family, it would just seem like there’s a lot less transaction cost if we’re all speaking the same language. How did it come to be and why did it come to be that so many languages bloomed?
Language is inherently changeable not because change is swell but because as you use a language over time and you pass it on to new generations, brains tend to start hearing things slightly differently than they were produced. After a while you start producing them that way. Next thing you know, you have a new sound. So it's Telephone before there is such thing as a Telephone.
It is exactly that. That is as inherent to language as it is inherent for clouds to change their shape. It isn’t that that happens to some languages and not others. That’s how human speech goes.
Is a lot of the linguistic diversity or the linguistic splintering that we’re talking about largely a function of the fact that spoken came so much before written? If there had been written that we wouldn’t have splintered?
If writing had come along immediately, quite certainly there would have been less change from place to place. But instead, because until really about 10 minutes ago language was just spoken, it was allowed to change at the speed that it normally does.
That change can happen in any one of various directions, which means that once you have two human groups, then their language after a certain period of time is not going to be the language that the original group spoke, just because say the sound “ah” might become “eh.” It might become, “uh.” You can see how a language would become a new one over time. Next thing you know, you have thousands of languages instead of one just because languages change like cloud formations.
Given our pretty advanced development of language and communication, what are the big problems with language as it now exists?
Well, we have 7,000 languages, and it’s safe to say that about half of them are severely endangered. Another thing that many people would consider a bad thing is that certain, roughly 20, big, fat languages are eating up so many of these small ones. What makes this regrettable to many, and quite understandably, is that the one that’s having probably the most success is English. English is this one language that was the vehicle of a rapaciously imperial power and now America is the main driver. That language is eating up all of these other languages, and in some ways, their cultures.