The Origins of Language

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Published: 6.07.2021
Level 5   |   Time: 4:08
Accent: American
Source: Freakonomics Radio (9.13.2017)

TOEFL: The first clip about how English became the dominant world language and the (unfair) advantages it gives its speakers.

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You can download the file [ HERE ].

    

triangle Directions 목표 Direcciones


  1. READ the VOCABULARY

    It is important to read the vocabulary before you watch the video. This will improve your ability to understand the video. It will also help you understand how the new vocabulary is used naturally.

  2. WATCH the VIDEO

    The first time you watch the video, just try to understand the overall situation.

  3. ANSWER the QUESTIONS

    First try to answer all the questions from memory. Then rewatch the video and try to answer the questions that you missed.

  4. WATCH and READ the SCRIPT

    Watch the video again while you read the script. Reading and listening at the same time will help you hear each individual word and improve your listening accuracy.

  5. DO the ACTIVITIES

    There are several different activities that focus on test preparation, vocabulary, grammar, and sentence structure.

  1. LEA el VOCABULARIO

    Es importante leer el vocabulario antes de ver el video. Esto mejorará su capacidad para comprender el video. También le ayudará a comprender cómo se usa el nuevo vocabulario de forma natural.

  2. VER el VIDEO

    La primera vez que vea el video, intente comprender la situación general.

  3. RESPONDE a las PREGUNTAS

    Primero intente responder todas las preguntas de memoria. Luego, vuelva a ver el video e intente responder las preguntas que se perdió.

  4. MIRAR Y LEER

    Mire el video nuevamente mientras lee el guión. Leer y escuchar al mismo tiempo lo ayudará a escuchar cada palabra individual y mejorará su precisión auditiva.

  5. HACER LAS ACTIVIDADES

    Hay una serie de actividades diferentes que se centran en la preparación de la examen, el vocabulario, la gramática y la estructura de las oraciones.

  1. 어휘 읽기

    비디오를 보기 전에 어휘와 배경을 읽는 것이 중요합니다. 이렇게 하면 비디오를 이해하는 능력이 향상됩니다. 또한 새로운 어휘가 어떻게 자연스럽게 사용되는지 이해하는데 도움이됩니다.

  2. 비디오 보기

    비디오를 처음 볼 때 전체 상황을 이해하려고 노력하세요.

  3. 문제에 답하기

    먼저 모든 질문에 답을 해보세요. 그런 다음 비디오를 다시보고 놓친 질문에 답해보세요.

  4. 비디오 보면서 대본 읽기

    대본을 읽는 동안 비디오를 다시 보세요. 읽기와 듣기를 동시에 하면 각각의 단어를 듣고, 듣기 정확도를 향상시킬 수 있습니다.

  5. 액티비티 하기

    듣기 정확도, 발음, 어휘, 문법 및 문장 구조에 초점을 맞춘 다양한 액티비티가 있습니다.

triangle Vocabulary 어휘 Vocabulario


  • ☐ ☐ ☐ primates [n] - apes, humans
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ hairy [adj] - having a lot of hair
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ infants [n] - babies
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ foraging [n] - looking for food (nuts, berries)
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ coo [v] - a soft sound that a mother makes to calm down a baby
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ scavenge [v] - look for food (already killed animals)
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ incentive [n] - motivation
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ gossip [n] - talking about people who are not there (rumors)
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ utilitarian [adj] - useful
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ transaction cost [n] - cost of using something
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ bloom [v] - become popular
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ swell [adj] - good / nice
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ inherently [adv] - a quality that exists in something naturally
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ Telephone [n] - a game of whispering something from person to person to person
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ linguist diversity [n] - many different languages
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ linguist splintering [n] - one language splitting into two or more languages over time
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ eat up [phv] - destroy, eliminate
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ rapacious imperial power [n] - a greedy country that conquers other countries

[n] - noun,  [v] - verb, [phv] - phrasal verb,  [adj] - adjective,  [exp] - expression



triangle Comprehension Questions 이해력 검사 문제 Preguntas de comprensión


  1. What are the three theories that the professor mentions for the origin of language?
    Singing
    To calm down children
    To scavenge large animals
    To trade things between groups

  2. Which theory does the professor think is most likely to be true?
    Singing
    To calm down children
    To scavenge large animals
    To trade things between groups

  3. According to the professor, what is the difference between most primates and humans?
    Humans are larger than most primates.
    Humans are weaker than most primates.
    Humans have less hair than most primates.

  4. Why is hair important for raising children?
    It keeps children warm.
    It allows children to hold on to their mother.
    The smell of a mother's hair calms down children.

  5. Why do scavengers need language?
    To work together scavenging very large animals
    To decide how to divide large animals
    To give names to the animals that they scavenge

  6. The host thinks that having one universal language _____.
    would be impossible
    would be more efficient
    would be less efficient

  7. According to the professor, languages tend to change because _____.
    people hear things differently over time
    some sounds are impossible to reproduce
    people need new words

  8. The host compares the change of language over time to _____.
    talking to people far away
    talking on the telephone
    playing a game of telephone

  9. The professor states that _____ change over time.
    all languages
    most languages
    some languages

  10. The host suggests that there would be less language diversity if ancient people _____.
    had looked at the clouds more
    had invented written language earlier
    had lived in larger communities

  11. The professor says that written language was invented _____.
    10 minutes ago
    10 centuries ago
    relatively recently in human history

  12. The professor states that about _____ languages are severly endangered.
    1000
    3500
    7000

  13. The 20 most common languages _____.
    are the easiest languages to learn
    have stopped changing
    are helping eliminate many of the smaller languages

  14. According to the professor, English _____.
    is the best language to study
    is difficult to learn
    is having the most success
    is now being driven by America
    has a history of greedy imperialism

  15. When the professor mentions a "rapacious imperial power", he means _____.
    the English language
    England
    the United States



triangle TOEFL Questions TOEFL 문제 Preguntas de TOEFL icon



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triangle Summary 요약 Resumen [ ? ]

Summary

This activity is designed to improve sentence accuracy and complexity. Most students can produce the key content words in a sentence. However, they have difficulty with accuracy because the functional words are difficult or can seem unimportant. This activity will help learners eliminate problems with these functional words by giving them immediate feedback on the mistakes they are making. It will also help students develop their use of more natural, varied and complex sentence structures.

TIP: Say the sentence out loud. Notice the types of mistake you make often. Focus on those types of errors. (singular/plural, subject-verb agreement, article use, prepositions, gerunds and infinitives, noun clauses, adjective clauses, word order, and word forms.)

Resumen

Esta actividad está diseñada para mejorar la precisión y complejidad de las oraciones. La mayoría de los estudiantes pueden producir las palabras clave del contenido en una oración. Sin embargo, tienen dificultades con la precisión porque las palabras funcionales son difíciles o pueden parecer poco importantes. Esta actividad ayudará a los alumnos a eliminar problemas con estas palabras funcionales al brindarles retroalimentación inmediata sobre los errores que están cometiendo. También ayudará a los estudiantes a desarrollar su uso de estructuras de oraciones más naturales, variadas y complejas.

CONSEJO: Diga la oración en voz alta. Observe los tipos de errores que comete con frecuencia. Concéntrese en ese tipo de errores. (singular / plural, concordancia entre sujeto y verbo, uso del artículo, preposiciones, gerundios e infinitivos, cláusulas sustantivas, cláusulas adjetivas, orden de las palabras y formas de las palabras).

요약

이 액티비티는 문장의 정확성과 복잡성을 개선하기 위해 고안되었습니다. 대부분의 학생들은 문장에서 핵심 내용 단어를 생성 할 수 있습니다. 그러나 기능적 단어가 어렵거나 중요하지 않은 것처럼 보일 수 있기 때문에 정확성에 어려움이 있습니다. 이 액티비티는 학습자가 실수에 대한 즉각적인 피드백을 제공함으로써 이러한 기능적 단어의 문제를 제거하는 데 도움이 됩니다. 또한 학생들이 보다 자연스럽고 다양하며 복잡한 문장 구조를 사용하는 데 도움이 됩니다.

팁 : 문장을 크게 말하세요. 자주 저지르는 실수 유형과, 이러한 유형의 오류에 집중하세요. (단수 / 복수, 주어-동사 일치, 관사 사용, 전치사, 동명사 및 부정사, 명사절, 형용사절, 어순 및 단어 형태)

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triangle Discussion 논의 Discusión icon



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triangle Script 대본 Texto icon



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