TOEFL: A discussion on how loneliness affects depression, and how loneliness can be measured by sleep patterns.
You can download the file [ HERE ].
It is important to read the vocabulary before you watch the video. This will improve your ability to understand the video. It will also help you understand how the new vocabulary is used naturally.
The first time you watch the video, just try to understand the overall situation.
First try to answer all the questions from memory. Then rewatch the video and try to answer the questions that you missed.
Watch the video again while you read the script. Reading and listening at the same time will help you hear each individual word and improve your listening accuracy.
There are several different activities that focus on test preparation, vocabulary, grammar, and sentence structure.
Es importante leer el vocabulario antes de ver el video. Esto mejorará su capacidad para comprender el video. También le ayudará a comprender cómo se usa el nuevo vocabulario de forma natural.
La primera vez que vea el video, intente comprender la situación general.
Primero intente responder todas las preguntas de memoria. Luego, vuelva a ver el video e intente responder las preguntas que se perdió.
Mire el video nuevamente mientras lee el guión. Leer y escuchar al mismo tiempo lo ayudará a escuchar cada palabra individual y mejorará su precisión auditiva.
Hay una serie de actividades diferentes que se centran en la preparación de la examen, el vocabulario, la gramática y la estructura de las oraciones.
비디오를 보기 전에 어휘와 배경을 읽는 것이 중요합니다. 이렇게 하면 비디오를 이해하는 능력이 향상됩니다. 또한 새로운 어휘가 어떻게 자연스럽게 사용되는지 이해하는데 도움이됩니다.
비디오를 처음 볼 때 전체 상황을 이해하려고 노력하세요.
먼저 모든 질문에 답을 해보세요. 그런 다음 비디오를 다시보고 놓친 질문에 답해보세요.
대본을 읽는 동안 비디오를 다시 보세요. 읽기와 듣기를 동시에 하면 각각의 단어를 듣고, 듣기 정확도를 향상시킬 수 있습니다.
듣기 정확도, 발음, 어휘, 문법 및 문장 구조에 초점을 맞춘 다양한 액티비티가 있습니다.
[n] - noun, [v] - verb, [phv] - phrasal verb, [adj] - adjective, [exp] - expression
This activity is designed to improve sentence accuracy and complexity. Most students can produce the key content words in a sentence. However, they have difficulty with accuracy because the functional words are difficult or can seem unimportant. This activity will help learners eliminate problems with these functional words by giving them immediate feedback on the mistakes they are making. It will also help students develop their use of more natural, varied and complex sentence structures.
TIP: Say the sentence out loud. Notice the types of mistake you make often. Focus on those types of errors. (singular/plural, subject-verb agreement, article use, prepositions, gerunds and infinitives, noun clauses, adjective clauses, word order, and word forms.)
Esta actividad está diseñada para mejorar la precisión y complejidad de las oraciones. La mayoría de los estudiantes pueden producir las palabras clave del contenido en una oración. Sin embargo, tienen dificultades con la precisión porque las palabras funcionales son difíciles o pueden parecer poco importantes. Esta actividad ayudará a los alumnos a eliminar problemas con estas palabras funcionales al brindarles retroalimentación inmediata sobre los errores que están cometiendo. También ayudará a los estudiantes a desarrollar su uso de estructuras de oraciones más naturales, variadas y complejas.
CONSEJO: Diga la oración en voz alta. Observe los tipos de errores que comete con frecuencia. Concéntrese en ese tipo de errores. (singular / plural, concordancia entre sujeto y verbo, uso del artículo, preposiciones, gerundios e infinitivos, cláusulas sustantivas, cláusulas adjetivas, orden de las palabras y formas de las palabras).
이 액티비티는 문장의 정확성과 복잡성을 개선하기 위해 고안되었습니다. 대부분의 학생들은 문장에서 핵심 내용 단어를 생성 할 수 있습니다. 그러나 기능적 단어가 어렵거나 중요하지 않은 것처럼 보일 수 있기 때문에 정확성에 어려움이 있습니다. 이 액티비티는 학습자가 실수에 대한 즉각적인 피드백을 제공함으로써 이러한 기능적 단어의 문제를 제거하는 데 도움이 됩니다. 또한 학생들이 보다 자연스럽고 다양하며 복잡한 문장 구조를 사용하는 데 도움이 됩니다.
팁 : 문장을 크게 말하세요. 자주 저지르는 실수 유형과, 이러한 유형의 오류에 집중하세요. (단수 / 복수, 주어-동사 일치, 관사 사용, 전치사, 동명사 및 부정사, 명사절, 형용사절, 어순 및 단어 형태)
Directions: Write sentences about the video clip using the words given. You can change the word form or add words, but you cannot change the word order.
Instrucciones: Escriba oraciones sobre el videoclip usando las palabras dadas. Puede cambiar la forma de la palabra o agregar palabras, pero no puede cambiar el orden de las palabras.
지시 : 주어진 단어를 사용하여 비디오 클립에 대한 문장을 씁니다. 어형을 변경하거나 단어를 추가할 수 있지만 어순은 변경할 수 없습니다.
there / science / evidence / nine / cause / depression / anxiety
There is scientific evidence for nine causes of depression and anxiety.
two / those / factor / biology / and / seven / related / lifestyle
Two of those factors are biological, and seven are related to lifestyle.
some / but / not / all / those / factor / increase
Some, but not all, of those factors have increased.
our / ancient / ancestor / good / band / together / cooperate / tribe
Our ancient ancestors were good at banding together in cooperative tribes.
our / ancestor / successful / because / they / much / better / work / together / than / large / animal / they / hunt
Our ancestors were successful because they were much better at working together than the large(r) animals (that) they hunted.
recent / study / many / people / say / they / have / no / one / they / could / call / crisis
In a recent study, many people said (that) they had no one (that) they could call in crisis.
when / our / ancestor / isolate / tribe / they / likely / depressed / because / they / mortal / danger
When our ancestors were isolated from their tribe(s), they were likely depressed because they were in mortal danger.
Lonesomeness / can / measure / by / test / how / often / people / wake / their / sleep
Lonesomeness can be measured by testing how often people wake up in their sleep.
people / lonely / experience / high / level / micro-awakening
People [who/that] are lonely experience high levels of micro-awakenings.
our / ancestor / have / no / tribe / likely / experience / numerous / micro-awakening
Our ancestors [who/that] had no tribe likely experienced numerous micro-awakenings.
Hutterites / who / live / off / grid / experience / virtual / no / micro-awakening / their / sleep
The Hutterites, who live off the grid, experience virtually no micro-awakenings in their sleep.
So one of the things I learned in all the research is that there are these, there is scientific evidence for nine causes of depression and anxiety. There may well
be other causes for which we dont yet have evidence. Two of those courses are biological. There are things that in your biology can make you much more sensitive
to depression and anxiety, and seven are factors in the way we live. And I dont think all of those factors have increased, but I do think some of them have increased.
So I'll give you one example of one of the most powerful determinants I think which is loneliness. Professor John Cacioppo at the University of Chicago, who I've interviewed a lot, has proven that loneliness causes depression and anxiety for a very kind of simple reason. As he put it to me, if you think about the circumstances where human beings evolved right. We exist, we're able to sit in this studio for one key reason. Our ancestors on the savannas of Africa were incredibly good at one thing. They were incredibly good at banding together in cooperative tribes. They weren't bigger than the animals they took down; they were much better at working together.
Every instinct human beings have is to be in a co-operative tribe. And you know just like bees need a hive, humans need a tribe. And there's really strong evidence that we are the first humans to really try to disband our tribes.
There's a study that asks Americans, "How many close friends do you have who you can call on in a crisis?" And when they started doing it years ago, the most common answer was five. Today the most common answer, it's not the average but the most common answer, is none. So we've got this unprecedentedly lonely society. And as Professor Cacioppo put it to me, you think about the circumstances where we evolved. If you were alone and separated from the tribe, you were anxious and depressed for a really good reason. You were about to be eaten, right? You were in terrible danger. If you got injured, you would probably die.
I'm very bought in on the loneliness research. I do think this is one of our truly severe social problems, but you had something I have never seen before, which is it you can measure the lonesomeness of people all over the world by testing how often they wake up in their sleep. That was really ... that's one of those ones that has rung in my head since I read it. Can you talk a bit about that research?
Yeah. I was totally fascinated by this myself.
So everyone experiences something called micro-awakenings in their sleep sometimes, which you wouldn't register them, but you wake up very slightly and then you go back to sleep. So you are roused a little. And one of the things we know is that when people feel lonely, they experience much higher levels of micro-awakenings. We think that's because if you went to sleep on the savannas of Africa or our ancestors and you were lonely, you would be right to be vigilant and keep waking up because you weren't protected by the tribe, right? That's Professor Cacioppo best thesis, although you know it's hard to test that. But it's a very good proxy for loneliness. If people describe it as being lonely, they will certainly experience a lot more micro-awakenings.
And one of the pieces of research that Proefessor Cacioppo did is he went to spent time with this group called the Hutterites, which they live in a very no electricity off the grid. And what he found is the Hutterites experience virtually no micro-awakenings in their sleep. What this demonstrated is it's not just that loneliness is a kind of inevitable human malady. It's that it is a function of certain ways of living.