Driverless Cars
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Published: 8.08.2022
Level 5   |   Time: 4:21
Accent: American
Source: Today Explained(7.29.2022)

TOEFL: A transportation expert describes the current state of automonous driving technology.

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You can download the file [ HERE ].

    

triangle Directions 목표 Direcciones


  1. READ the VOCABULARY

    It is important to read the vocabulary before you watch the video. This will improve your ability to understand the video. It will also help you understand how the new vocabulary is used naturally.

  2. WATCH the VIDEO

    The first time you watch the video, just try to understand the overall situation.

  3. ANSWER the QUESTIONS

    First try to answer all the questions from memory. Then rewatch the video and try to answer the questions that you missed.

  4. WATCH and READ the SCRIPT

    Watch the video again while you read the script. Reading and listening at the same time will help you hear each individual word and improve your listening accuracy.

  5. DO the ACTIVITIES

    There are several different activities that focus on test preparation, vocabulary, grammar, and sentence structure.

  1. LEA el VOCABULARIO

    Es importante leer el vocabulario antes de ver el video. Esto mejorará su capacidad para comprender el video. También le ayudará a comprender cómo se usa el nuevo vocabulario de forma natural.

  2. VER el VIDEO

    La primera vez que vea el video, intente comprender la situación general.

  3. RESPONDE a las PREGUNTAS

    Primero intente responder todas las preguntas de memoria. Luego, vuelva a ver el video e intente responder las preguntas que se perdió.

  4. MIRAR Y LEER

    Mire el video nuevamente mientras lee el guión. Leer y escuchar al mismo tiempo lo ayudará a escuchar cada palabra individual y mejorará su precisión auditiva.

  5. HACER LAS ACTIVIDADES

    Hay una serie de actividades diferentes que se centran en la preparación de la examen, el vocabulario, la gramática y la estructura de las oraciones.

  1. 어휘 읽기

    비디오를 보기 전에 어휘와 배경을 읽는 것이 중요합니다. 이렇게 하면 비디오를 이해하는 능력이 향상됩니다. 또한 새로운 어휘가 어떻게 자연스럽게 사용되는지 이해하는데 도움이됩니다.

  2. 비디오 보기

    비디오를 처음 볼 때 전체 상황을 이해하려고 노력하세요.

  3. 문제에 답하기

    먼저 모든 질문에 답을 해보세요. 그런 다음 비디오를 다시보고 놓친 질문에 답해보세요.

  4. 비디오 보면서 대본 읽기

    대본을 읽는 동안 비디오를 다시 보세요. 읽기와 듣기를 동시에 하면 각각의 단어를 듣고, 듣기 정확도를 향상시킬 수 있습니다.

  5. 액티비티 하기

    듣기 정확도, 발음, 어휘, 문법 및 문장 구조에 초점을 맞춘 다양한 액티비티가 있습니다.

triangle Vocabulary 어휘 Vocabulario


  • ☐ ☐ ☐ autonomous [adj] - not requiring a driver
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ broad [adj] - wide
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ taxonomy [n] - the process of giving names
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ the bare minimum [exp] - the lowest level possible
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ cruise control [n] - a car function that keeps the speed constant
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ adaptive [adj] - able to adjust to new conditions
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ a blind spot [n] - the area behind a car that is not visible to the driver with mirrors
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ detection [n] - find or identify something that is hidden
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ lane centering [n] - a car function that keeps the car in the middle of the lane
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ functions [n] - abilities
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ for all intents and purposes [exp] - basically, generally speaking
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ the wheel [n] - the steering wheel
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ blurry [adj] - not clear
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ behind the wheel [exp] - driving, controlling the car
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ constrained [adj] - limited
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ a completely fantastical notion [exp] - a totally imaginary idea
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ abuse [v] - use to a bad effect or for a bad purpose
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ muddy the water [exp] - make something unclear
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ compelling [adj] - interesting, attractive
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ outlandish [adj] - crazy, unreal, impossible
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ buy into it [exp] - believe it
  • ☐ ☐ ☐ lane correction [n] - a car function that keeps the car in the middle of the lane

[n] - noun,  [v] - verb, [phv] - phrasal verb,  [adj] - adjective,  [exp] - expression



triangle Comprehension Questions 이해력 검사 문제 Preguntas de comprensión


  1. Experiments with autonomous driving started about _____.
    5 years ago
    15 years ago
    50 years ago.

  2. Tesla is trying to _______ what their cars are capable of.
    clarify
    confuse people about

  3. Tesla cars are capable of ______ autonomous driving.
    Level 1
    Level 2
    Level 3
    Level 4
    Level 5

  4. Level 0 autonomous driving includes ______.
    no automatic features
    cruise control
    lane centering
    driverless driving
    blind spot detection
    automatic emergency braking
    fully autonomous driving

  5. Level 1 autonomous driving includes ______.
    no automatic features
    cruise control
    lane centering
    driverless driving
    blind spot detection
    automatic emergency braking
    fully autonomous driving

  6. Level 2 autonomous driving includes ______.
    no automatic features
    cruise control
    lane centering
    driverless navigation
    blind spot detection
    automatic emergency braking
    fully autonomous driving

  7. In Level 3 autonomous driving, the car ______ drive itself.
    can
    can't

  8. In Level 3 autonomous driving, the driver ______ pay attention.
    must
    doesn't have to
    must not

  9. Level 3 cars ______ a human driver.
    can drive themselves without
    still require

  10. Level 4 cars ______ a human driver.
    can drive themselves without
    still require

  11. Level 4 cars face restrictions related to ______.
    weather conditions
    the driver's age
    location
    price

  12. Currently, there _____ Level 4 cars on the road.
    are some
    are not any

  13. Currently, there _____ Level 5 cars on the road.
    are some
    are not any

  14. Elon Musk believes Tesla will be able to produce Level 5 cars within ______.
    a year
    3 years
    10 years

  15. Elon musk is confident he can produce Level 5 cars for about ______.
    $15 000
    $25 000
    $50 000
    $55 000

  16. The speakers ______ to believe that Tesla can produce a cheap Level 5 car in the near future.
    seem
    don't seem to



triangle TOEFL Questions TOEFL 문제 Preguntas de TOEFL


  1. What is the discussion mainly about?
    (A) The capabilities of autonomous driving
    (B) The dangers of driverless cars
    (C) The growth of Tesla
    (D) The restrictions that driverless cars face

  2. What does the speaker mean when he says this?

    (A) Tesla cars have difficulty driving in poor weather conditions.
    (B) Tesla is being purposefully dishonest about the capabilities of its cars.
    (C) Tesla is lying about how much their driverless cars will cost.
    (D) The safety of Tesla's driverless cars in unclear.

  3. Why are Level 3 cars considered the most dangerous type of driverless car?
    (A) These cars do not have proper safety features.
    (B) These types of cars have been involved in the highest number of car accidents.
    (C) The language used to describe these cars is abused in order to increase sales figures.
    (D) It is unclear when these cars are driving themselves and when the driver is driving.

  4. Why did the speaker's friend freak out when he got into an Uber car?
    (A) Elon Musk was driving the car.
    (B) The driver was not holding the steering wheel.
    (C) The driver wasn't paying attention to the road.
    (D) There was no driver.

  5. What is the difference between a Level 3 and a Level 4 car?
    (A) Level 4 cars can drive in any weather condition while Level 3 cars cannot.
    (B) Level 4 cars can drive themselves while Level 3 cars cannot.
    (C) Level 3 cars still need a driver while Level 4 cars do not.
    (D) Level 3 cars are restricted geographically while Level 4 cars are not.

  6. What does the speaker mean when he says this?

    (A) Level 5 cars are very exciting.
    (B) Level 5 cars may not be possible to build.
    (C) Level 5 cars will probably be very expensive.
    (D) Level 5 cars will be very dangerous.


  7. How are Google's autonomous cars limited.
    [Choose 3 answers.]
    (A) They are restricted from driving in some locations.
    (B) They cannot drive without a licensed driver behind the wheel.
    (C) They may be restricted in some weather conditions.
    (D) They may not be able to drive above certain speeds.
    (E) They may not be able to drive at night.

  8. What do the speakers say about Tesla?
    [Choose 2 answers.]
    (A) Tesla is already producing Level 2 to Level 3 autonomous cars.
    (B) Tesla currently has some Level 4 cars on the road.
    (C) Tesla has been providing Uber with driverless cars.
    (D) Tesla claims it will release a Level 5 car in the next three years.



triangle Summary 요약 Resumen [ ? ]

Summary

This activity is designed to improve sentence accuracy and complexity. Most students can produce the key content words in a sentence. However, they have difficulty with accuracy because the functional words are difficult or can seem unimportant. This activity will help learners eliminate problems with these functional words by giving them immediate feedback on the mistakes they are making. It will also help students develop their use of more natural, varied and complex sentence structures.

TIP: Say the sentence out loud. Notice the types of mistake you make often. Focus on those types of errors. (singular/plural, subject-verb agreement, article use, prepositions, gerunds and infinitives, noun clauses, adjective clauses, word order, and word forms.)

Resumen

Esta actividad está diseñada para mejorar la precisión y complejidad de las oraciones. La mayoría de los estudiantes pueden producir las palabras clave del contenido en una oración. Sin embargo, tienen dificultades con la precisión porque las palabras funcionales son difíciles o pueden parecer poco importantes. Esta actividad ayudará a los alumnos a eliminar problemas con estas palabras funcionales al brindarles retroalimentación inmediata sobre los errores que están cometiendo. También ayudará a los estudiantes a desarrollar su uso de estructuras de oraciones más naturales, variadas y complejas.

CONSEJO: Diga la oración en voz alta. Observe los tipos de errores que comete con frecuencia. Concéntrese en ese tipo de errores. (singular / plural, concordancia entre sujeto y verbo, uso del artículo, preposiciones, gerundios e infinitivos, cláusulas sustantivas, cláusulas adjetivas, orden de las palabras y formas de las palabras).

요약

이 액티비티는 문장의 정확성과 복잡성을 개선하기 위해 고안되었습니다. 대부분의 학생들은 문장에서 핵심 내용 단어를 생성 할 수 있습니다. 그러나 기능적 단어가 어렵거나 중요하지 않은 것처럼 보일 수 있기 때문에 정확성에 어려움이 있습니다. 이 액티비티는 학습자가 실수에 대한 즉각적인 피드백을 제공함으로써 이러한 기능적 단어의 문제를 제거하는 데 도움이 됩니다. 또한 학생들이 보다 자연스럽고 다양하며 복잡한 문장 구조를 사용하는 데 도움이 됩니다.

팁 : 문장을 크게 말하세요. 자주 저지르는 실수 유형과, 이러한 유형의 오류에 집중하세요. (단수 / 복수, 주어-동사 일치, 관사 사용, 전치사, 동명사 및 부정사, 명사절, 형용사절, 어순 및 단어 형태)


Directions: Write sentences about the video clip using the words given. You can change the word form or add words, but you cannot change the word order.

Instrucciones: Escriba oraciones sobre el videoclip usando las palabras dadas. Puede cambiar la forma de la palabra o agregar palabras, pero no puede cambiar el orden de las palabras.

지시 : 주어진 단어를 사용하여 비디오 클립에 대한 문장을 씁니다. 어형을 변경하거나 단어를 추가할 수 있지만 어순은 변경할 수 없습니다.



Sentence 1

development / autonomous / drive / begin / about / 15 / year / ago


The development of autonomous driving began about 15 years ago.



Sentence 2

it / unclear / Tesla / car / drive / self


It is unclear [if/whether] Tesla cars drive themselves.
It is unclear [if/whether] Tesla cars can drive themselves.
It is unclear [if/whether] Tesla cars are driving themselves.



Sentence 3

although / Tesla / seem / be / active / try / confuse / people / their / car / actual / only / capable / Level 2 / autonomous / drive


Although Tesla seems to be actively trying to confuse people, their cars are actually only capable of Level 2 autonomous driving.



Sentence 4

there / five / level / autonomous / drive


There are five levels of autonomous driving.



Sentence 5

level 1 / car / include / basic / feature / like / cruise / control


Level 1 cars include basic features like cruise control.



Sentence 6

level 2 / car / include / more / advance / feature / like / blind / spot / detect / and / lane / center


Level 2 cars include more advanced features like blind spot detection and lane centering.



Sentence 7

level 3 / car / can / technical / drive / self / but / driver / still / need / be / pay / attention / behind / wheel


Level 3 cars can technically drive themselves, but the driver still need to be paying attention behind the wheel.



Sentence 8

level 4 / car / can / operate / without / driver / but / they / have / restriction / relate / weather / location


Level 4 cars can operate without a driver, but they have restrictions related to weather and location.



Sentence 9

level 5 / car / full / autonomous / but / they / current / not / and / may / never / exist


Level 5 cars are fully autonomous, but they currently don't and may never exist.



Sentence 10

Elon / Musk / claim / Tesla / able / produce / afford / level 5 / car / within / next / three / year


Elon Musk claims (that) Tesla will be able to produce affordable Level 5 cars within the next three years.
Elon Musk claims (that) Tesla will be able to produce an affordable Level 5 car within the next three years.



triangle Discussion 논의 Discusión


  1. What is the difference between Level 1 and Level 2 autonomous driving? Between Level 3 and 4?
  2. The speakers single out Level 3 cars as somewhat dangerous? Why? Do you agree with them?
  3. The speakers seem critical of Elon Musk. In what ways? Why do you think they are critical of him?
  4. Tesla is sort of hanging out in the Level 2 to 3 area, [...] depending on the laws on the given road that you're driving on.
    What does this mean? How could the laws affect the level of automation? In what areas do you think autonomous driving is likely to be more restricted?
  5. Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3 cars are already available for commercial use. Have you driven any of these cars? Describe the experience.
  6. Would you feel comfortable in a Level 4 or Level 5 car? Why?
  7. Would you consider buying a Level 5 Tesla for 25 000 dollars?
  8. What legal issues surround driverless cars?

    Further Reading: Levels of Autonomous Driving

triangle Script 대본 Texto


Today Explained. Rameswaram here with Andrew J. Hawkins, transportation editor at The Verge, which lately means he spends a lot of time thinking about automated cars.

Yeah, so we're about 15 years or so into a very broad global experiment into autonomous driving. There are numerous companies that are testing vehicles on the road all across the world.

Got it. Help me out with the taxonomy here a bit, Andrew. Are the Teslas driving themselves yet, or are people still driving them? I'm hearing mixed things from the people.

You're not wrong to be confused about this. I think Tesla is trying to actively confuse people about what it's vehicles are capable of. What they're actually capable of is what's called Level 2 autonomous driving.

Level 2? How many levels are there?

There are five levels.

Level 0.

So zero is no automated features at all.

Level 0.

1 is the bare minimum. So something like cruise control, for example.

Level 2.

Level 2 is more advanced cruise control. It's things like adaptive cruise control, automatic emergency braking, blind spot detection, lane centering. Advanced features that you find, like, in lots of cars on the road, safely.

Level 3.

Then you've got Level 3, which is there are some autonomous features, like the car can technically drive itself, perhaps on the highway, for example. But the driver still needs to stay paying attention to the functions of the driving, needs to keep their eyes on the road. But for all intents and purposes, the car is technically driving itself.

This is what I hear about, like a buddy got into an Uber recently, and the guy didn't have his hands on the wheel, and he kind of freaked out.

Yeah. Level 3 is considered to be pretty dangerous. It's very blurry. There's not like a clear line between when the car is driving itself and when the human needs to be driving it.

Level 4.

And then you got Level 4. There are Level 4 vehicles on the road today. Google has some in Arizona, for example. These are cars that can operate with no human behind the wheel, but they are constrained either geographically, like they're only allowed to drive within a certain geographic area, or they can't drive at night, or they can't drive during certain weather conditions.

And then you've got level 5.

Level 5.

Level 5 is basically like science fiction. And this is a car that can drive anywhere under any conditions: night, day, all types of weather, all types of road conditions, no matter where it wants to go. These vehicles do not exist today in the world, and a lot of people seem to think that they might never exist, that it's a completely fantastical notion.

A lot of the problem that we have with Tesla because they are abusing the language that we use to describe automated driving technology for the purpose of selling a lot of cars. And it's working for them. But it tends to muddy the water a little bit and lead to normal people sort of being confused about what's autonomous and and what's not.

Right. Because Tesla is sort of hanging out in the Level 2 to 3 area, as far as I know, depending on the laws on the given road that you're driving on. Is that right?

That's correct, yes. Elon Musk goes out on stage frequently and says that Tesla's will be fully driverless. They will be Level 5.

About three years from now, we're confident we can make a very compelling $25,000 electric vehicle that's also fully autonomous.

He's fully embracing the sort of more outlandish and fantastical ways of describing this technology, and he has a lot of people who are buying into it.

But the truth is that Tesla is Level 2, just like the Volkswagen that you might rent at the airport that is also basically doing lane correction and telling you when to break or breaking for you or something like that.

Yeah, that's correct. The driver still needs to be fully aware and fully paying attention to what's going on.