TOEFL: A transportation expert describes the current state of automonous driving technology.
You can download the file [ HERE ].
It is important to read the vocabulary before you watch the video. This will improve your ability to understand the video. It will also help you understand how the new vocabulary is used naturally.
The first time you watch the video, just try to understand the overall situation.
First try to answer all the questions from memory. Then rewatch the video and try to answer the questions that you missed.
Watch the video again while you read the script. Reading and listening at the same time will help you hear each individual word and improve your listening accuracy.
There are several different activities that focus on test preparation, vocabulary, grammar, and sentence structure.
Es importante leer el vocabulario antes de ver el video. Esto mejorará su capacidad para comprender el video. También le ayudará a comprender cómo se usa el nuevo vocabulario de forma natural.
La primera vez que vea el video, intente comprender la situación general.
Primero intente responder todas las preguntas de memoria. Luego, vuelva a ver el video e intente responder las preguntas que se perdió.
Mire el video nuevamente mientras lee el guión. Leer y escuchar al mismo tiempo lo ayudará a escuchar cada palabra individual y mejorará su precisión auditiva.
Hay una serie de actividades diferentes que se centran en la preparación de la examen, el vocabulario, la gramática y la estructura de las oraciones.
비디오를 보기 전에 어휘와 배경을 읽는 것이 중요합니다. 이렇게 하면 비디오를 이해하는 능력이 향상됩니다. 또한 새로운 어휘가 어떻게 자연스럽게 사용되는지 이해하는데 도움이됩니다.
비디오를 처음 볼 때 전체 상황을 이해하려고 노력하세요.
먼저 모든 질문에 답을 해보세요. 그런 다음 비디오를 다시보고 놓친 질문에 답해보세요.
대본을 읽는 동안 비디오를 다시 보세요. 읽기와 듣기를 동시에 하면 각각의 단어를 듣고, 듣기 정확도를 향상시킬 수 있습니다.
듣기 정확도, 발음, 어휘, 문법 및 문장 구조에 초점을 맞춘 다양한 액티비티가 있습니다.
[n] - noun, [v] - verb, [phv] - phrasal verb, [adj] - adjective, [exp] - expression
This activity is designed to improve sentence accuracy and complexity. Most students can produce the key content words in a sentence. However, they have difficulty with accuracy because the functional words are difficult or can seem unimportant. This activity will help learners eliminate problems with these functional words by giving them immediate feedback on the mistakes they are making. It will also help students develop their use of more natural, varied and complex sentence structures.
TIP: Say the sentence out loud. Notice the types of mistake you make often. Focus on those types of errors. (singular/plural, subject-verb agreement, article use, prepositions, gerunds and infinitives, noun clauses, adjective clauses, word order, and word forms.)
Esta actividad está diseñada para mejorar la precisión y complejidad de las oraciones. La mayoría de los estudiantes pueden producir las palabras clave del contenido en una oración. Sin embargo, tienen dificultades con la precisión porque las palabras funcionales son difíciles o pueden parecer poco importantes. Esta actividad ayudará a los alumnos a eliminar problemas con estas palabras funcionales al brindarles retroalimentación inmediata sobre los errores que están cometiendo. También ayudará a los estudiantes a desarrollar su uso de estructuras de oraciones más naturales, variadas y complejas.
CONSEJO: Diga la oración en voz alta. Observe los tipos de errores que comete con frecuencia. Concéntrese en ese tipo de errores. (singular / plural, concordancia entre sujeto y verbo, uso del artículo, preposiciones, gerundios e infinitivos, cláusulas sustantivas, cláusulas adjetivas, orden de las palabras y formas de las palabras).
이 액티비티는 문장의 정확성과 복잡성을 개선하기 위해 고안되었습니다. 대부분의 학생들은 문장에서 핵심 내용 단어를 생성 할 수 있습니다. 그러나 기능적 단어가 어렵거나 중요하지 않은 것처럼 보일 수 있기 때문에 정확성에 어려움이 있습니다. 이 액티비티는 학습자가 실수에 대한 즉각적인 피드백을 제공함으로써 이러한 기능적 단어의 문제를 제거하는 데 도움이 됩니다. 또한 학생들이 보다 자연스럽고 다양하며 복잡한 문장 구조를 사용하는 데 도움이 됩니다.
팁 : 문장을 크게 말하세요. 자주 저지르는 실수 유형과, 이러한 유형의 오류에 집중하세요. (단수 / 복수, 주어-동사 일치, 관사 사용, 전치사, 동명사 및 부정사, 명사절, 형용사절, 어순 및 단어 형태)
Directions: Write sentences about the video clip using the words given. You can change the word form or add words, but you cannot change the word order.
Instrucciones: Escriba oraciones sobre el videoclip usando las palabras dadas. Puede cambiar la forma de la palabra o agregar palabras, pero no puede cambiar el orden de las palabras.
지시 : 주어진 단어를 사용하여 비디오 클립에 대한 문장을 씁니다. 어형을 변경하거나 단어를 추가할 수 있지만 어순은 변경할 수 없습니다.
development / autonomous / drive / begin / about / 15 / year / ago
The development of autonomous driving began about 15 years ago.
it / unclear / Tesla / car / drive / self
It is unclear [if/whether] Tesla cars drive themselves.
It is unclear [if/whether] Tesla cars can drive themselves.
It is unclear [if/whether] Tesla cars are driving themselves.
although / Tesla / seem / be / active / try / confuse / people / their / car / actual / only / capable / Level 2 / autonomous / drive
Although Tesla seems to be actively trying to confuse people, their cars are actually only capable of Level 2 autonomous driving.
there / five / level / autonomous / drive
There are five levels of autonomous driving.
level 1 / car / include / basic / feature / like / cruise / control
Level 1 cars include basic features like cruise control.
level 2 / car / include / more / advance / feature / like / blind / spot / detect / and / lane / center
Level 2 cars include more advanced features like blind spot detection and lane centering.
level 3 / car / can / technical / drive / self / but / driver / still / need / be / pay / attention / behind / wheel
Level 3 cars can technically drive themselves, but the driver still need to be paying attention behind the wheel.
level 4 / car / can / operate / without / driver / but / they / have / restriction / relate / weather / location
Level 4 cars can operate without a driver, but they have restrictions related to weather and location.
level 5 / car / full / autonomous / but / they / current / not / and / may / never / exist
Level 5 cars are fully autonomous, but they currently don't and may never exist.
Elon / Musk / claim / Tesla / able / produce / afford / level 5 / car / within / next / three / year
Elon Musk claims (that) Tesla will be able to produce affordable Level 5 cars within the next three years.
Elon Musk claims (that) Tesla will be able to produce an affordable Level 5 car within the next three years.
Today Explained. Rameswaram here with Andrew J. Hawkins, transportation editor at The Verge, which lately means he spends a lot of time thinking about automated cars.
Yeah, so we're about 15 years or so into a very broad global experiment into autonomous driving. There are numerous companies that are testing vehicles on the road all across the world.
Got it. Help me out with the taxonomy here a bit, Andrew. Are the Teslas driving themselves yet, or are people still driving them? I'm hearing mixed things from the people.
You're not wrong to be confused about this. I think Tesla is trying to actively confuse people about what it's vehicles are capable of. What they're actually capable of is what's called Level 2 autonomous driving.
Level 2? How many levels are there?
There are five levels.
So zero is no automated features at all.
1 is the bare minimum. So something like cruise control, for example.
Level 2 is more advanced cruise control. It's things like adaptive cruise control, automatic emergency braking, blind spot detection, lane centering. Advanced features that you find, like, in lots of cars on the road, safely.
Then you've got Level 3, which is there are some autonomous features, like the car can technically drive itself, perhaps on the highway, for example. But the driver still needs to stay paying attention to the functions of the driving, needs to keep their eyes on the road. But for all intents and purposes, the car is technically driving itself.
This is what I hear about, like a buddy got into an Uber recently, and the guy didn't have his hands on the wheel, and he kind of freaked out.
Yeah. Level 3 is considered to be pretty dangerous. It's very blurry. There's not like a clear line between when the car is driving itself and when the human needs to be driving it.
And then you got Level 4. There are Level 4 vehicles on the road today. Google has some in Arizona, for example. These are cars that can operate with no human behind the wheel, but they are constrained either geographically, like they're only allowed to drive within a certain geographic area, or they can't drive at night, or they can't drive during certain weather conditions.
And then you've got level 5.
Level 5 is basically like science fiction. And this is a car that can drive anywhere under any conditions: night, day, all types of weather, all types of road conditions, no matter where it wants to go. These vehicles do not exist today in the world, and a lot of people seem to think that they might never exist, that it's a completely fantastical notion.
A lot of the problem that we have with Tesla because they are abusing the language that we use to describe automated driving technology for the purpose of selling a lot of cars. And it's working for them. But it tends to muddy the water a little bit and lead to normal people sort of being confused about what's autonomous and and what's not.
Right. Because Tesla is sort of hanging out in the Level 2 to 3 area, as far as I know, depending on the laws on the given road that you're driving on. Is that right?
That's correct, yes. Elon Musk goes out on stage frequently and says that Tesla's will be fully driverless. They will be Level 5.
About three years from now, we're confident we can make a very compelling $25,000 electric vehicle that's also fully autonomous.
He's fully embracing the sort of more outlandish and fantastical ways of describing this technology, and he has a lot of people who are buying into it.
But the truth is that Tesla is Level 2, just like the Volkswagen that you might rent at the airport that is also basically doing lane correction and telling you when to break or breaking for you or something like that.
Yeah, that's correct. The driver still needs to be fully aware and fully paying attention to what's going on.